Marble is metamorphosed limestone and dolomitic limestones under heat and pressure, resulting in a new structure as a result of recrystallization, hence all kinds of rocks that can be cut and polished and have commercial value are called marble. It is a mosaic of massive, roughly uniform masses (according to the metamorphism of the way it is spanned) with no gap between the calcite crystals. The veins and swirlings in marble are caused by mineral impurities. The greatest source of natural stone is the mountains, river beds and seas.
Its colors are usually white and gray. However, due to different materials inside of marble, they may also be in colors such as yellow, pink, red, blue, brown and black. When studied under a microscope, it appears to be formed from “Calcite Crystals”, which are firmly interlocked.
Marble is mainly used for floor covering, decorative purpose, fine arts, graves and tombstone. It is the production process that will explain the quality of natural stone. Stone surface finishing is similar to sanding. Lower calf size or longer sanding gives the stone a brighter polished look, while less makes it look more natural. Surface treatment is a design choice. When a modern look is desired, generally polished surfaces are used. They require more precise attention and processing than aged or tumble surfaces which have a natural patina and which will exhibit better wear and tear over time.
Turkey is locating at one of the oldest marble production geography experiencing 4000 years natural stone production background. Turkey is one of the leading countries in terms of marble production, with marble reserves estimated to be over 4 billion m3 and has 40% of the world marble potential. The visible reserves of Turkey, about 1.6 billion tons, are capable of meeting world consumption for 80 years on its own. There are up to 650 marble types in color and texture in Turkey. Marble beds in Turkey were operated by all the civilizations in Anatolia such as Roman, Byzantine Empires and Seljuk, Ottoman Empires. From uncovered reliefs and sculptures in Ancient Greek and Roman Arena to Seljuk Caravanserais, mosques, and Ottoman palaces, minarets and baths are most particular examples of marble. Halicarnassus Mausoleum and the temple of Artemis from Seven Wonders of the World’s hit a mark of this period in history of Turkey. Marble is used richly during the construction of Anıtkabir Mausoleum in modern Turkey.
With over 80 types and 650 different colors and patterns, Turkey has one of the world’s largest natural stone reserves, which is considered to be excellent quality.
Turkey’s marbles are separated according to their type:
1. Light and light-resistant marbles: (Marmara Island “white-gray”), Gebze (apple flower), Afyon (sugar, yellow, tiger post), Bilecik (pink), Ankara (beige or veined) Hereke (pudding), Kırşehir (olive leaf, pearl), Kütahya (pistachio color), Geyve (mahogany), Kayseri (black), İzmir (white).
2. Very crystalline, veined and light-permeable onyxes (agate and albatross). Seben-Bolu (white, green), Söğüt-Bilecik (green, yellow, blackstone), Yunus Emre-Eskişehir (brown), Turhal (green, yellow), Tokat (green), Salanda-Nevşehir (green).
3. The limestone consists of percolated deposits: Afyon (yellow), Denizli (yellow), Kütahya (light brown), Maliköy (white), Pamukkale (white).
4. Well-clamped blisters consisting of very hard stones: Gemlik (green).