Onyx stone, a type of calcinedon, is formed by the combination of calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, copper, iron oxide and fluorine minerals, which is the cause of the boiling of the underground hot water.
Onyx name derives from the word “ring” in the Assyrian language. Onyx, a kind of quartz cryptocrystaline, is a stone with many layers in different colors. The colors of the layers vary quite a lot and can be as many different colors as white to black.
Onyx is a different stone than marble. From the outside, it is very difficult to distinguish from marble, but Onyx stone is translucent and light-brilliant, Marble is completely transparent. When marble is obtained from near-surface layers, Onyx stones are found in much deeper layers and are valued according to their color. The most worthless onyx is the one that is the black one then white, gray, brown, yellow and green in order. Onyx is also a popular stone in ancient Greece and Rome. Onyx is related to Roman mythology. Goddess of beauty; Onyx is a compound of silicon dioxide.
Mohs is a hard stone with a rating of 7.0 on the scale.Onyxes usually occur as veins in the travertine or under the travertine and usually develop as vertical veins. The true onix component is SiO2. Its composition consists of hot water (like geysers) with SiO2. If the formation is above 29 degrees then aragonite, if the formation is below 29 degrees, then the calcite crystals are in the mineral composition. There is no loss of material in the onyx. The smallest pieces can be evaluated in the making of ornaments in the workshops.
Natural onyx is used as gemstone. It is a flat variety of chalcedony with alternating lines that are mostly black and white color. But, some onyx also contains lines of red and white or brown and white.
One of the important secrets of jewelery designers that the stones on the dark ground give more light, and this contrast makes that the apperance of stones are bigger than its actual size. Onyx is the number one material that will form a dark floor when preparing this illusion.
Onyx is usually used for decorative purposes due to the limitation of marble production. As the purpose of use is to give the most light and transparency, it is used in fairs and lobbys that the visual richness is predominant .
ONYX IN TURKEY
Historically, communities are bracing for temple construction in the ancient Egyptian, Greek and Roman . At the same time, when you look at the works of the Islamic communities, there are examples of columns used in mosque architecture. Onyx marble is produced mostly in Afyon and Cappadocia region in Turkey and it is also used in decorative objects. At the beginning of these decorative products are examples of vases, figures and jewelry boxes in home decoration.
This word, which is used as ‘Onyx’ in Greek and which means nail, has entered into Turkish as ‘Onyx’. It is said that in the Middle Ages, the people in ancient Turkey believed that onyx stone was good for epilepsy. The onyx description in Turkish is used for a kind of marble as well as for a kind of water which is a semi-precious stone of calcsoon species.True onyx is a kind of agate, consisting of large quantities of silicon minerals. This stone, also called sputum stone, is round layered. The internal structure is called a ‘cat’s eye’, which is a fibrous and moire type, and is used as jewelry stone. One of the marble types is called onyx because it resembles this stone.
Oldest onyx items found in Turkey are oil lamps. They belong to Classical Age (B.C. 150 – B.C. 300) and they are exhibited in Hacıbektas Archeology and Ethnography Museum.
Hacı Bektaş Veli (a religious character) who came to Turkey from Horasan in the 13th century and settled in Hacıbektas town and a Bektasi Sect formed around his philosophical opinions by his members. They carried the 12 saints necklace which is made of onyx. The altar, pulpit and preaching chair of the Karavezir Mosque, which was built in 1779 in Gülşehir town were made using onyx marble. The church, which was completed in 1892 by St. Yuannis ( a local Christian Saint in Turkey) and the onyx marble used for architectural construction.
Currently, onyx products as souvenirs are vase, ashtray, pen holder, nameplate, candy, candle holder, candlestick, various biblors, animal shaped decorative products, coffee cups, various jewelery, jewelry boxes, keychain, chess set are made onyx marble which is used in making various objects for decoration and use.