Steel Slab

Steel Slab

This is described as semi-finished steel and is the end result of rolling ingots on a rolling mill or by processing them through a continuous casting process. Slabs will have rectangular cross sections and are used as the “starter” metals in the making of flat products such as steel plates or hot rolled coils. Slabs are always flat and rectangular and will typically range from 160mm thicknesses and more. They are used in an astonishing number of industries, though not always the same as billets or blooms.

The most common industries purchasing steel slab relate to heavy machinery and the production of plates or coils. Not unlike steel billets, slabs are formed for further processing, but are always in that distinctive rectangular shape. They are then typically processed using flat rolling and will be most often converted into sheet metal, chequered plates, pipes and tubes.

While available in stainless, the most common is carbon steel. The chemical composition will vary, but most feature iron, chromium, copper, manganese, molybdenum, nickel and silicon. They too must be identified using standard coding, and this is typically attached or imprinted into the end of the slab.

This will always include:

  • Heat number: This is stamped into the metal at the far end
  • Color code: This will indicate the class or grade and must be painted at the end

All slabs should be free of longitudinal and transverse cracks, jointing, scum, scab, shrinkage cavities and any other indications of surface and internal unsoundness that may adversely affect final product. Standards for slabs vary, and each must feature the chemical composition necessary for producing the desired product. Some of the standards that apply to them include:

• ASTM A615M• GOST ST 49S/SP.
• ASTM A706M • GOST ST 5S/SP.
• ASTM A711 / A7aam• S235JR
• BS 4449• S235J0
• GOST 380/89-94.• S235J2
• GOST ST 3 S/SP.• S275JR
• S275J0• PED 97/23/EC
• S275J2• ASME MO QSC 713
• S355JR• DNV
• S355J0• Germanischer Lloyd
• S355J2• Lloyd’s Register
• ISO 9001 & 14001 - TÜV Nord• As well as some UNS, JIS and CNS standards
• BS OHSAS 18001 - TÜV Nord
• AD 2000 – Merkblatt W0/TRD 100 - TÜV Nord

Sizes vary, with 300mm becoming an industry standard. The chemical composition of the slabs will vary by the designation or type, and grades in slabs have unique families that include:

  • Ferritic
  • Austenitic
  • Duplex
  • Martensitic
  • Precipitation hardening

Recycled steel scrap and other metals may be used in the steel slab production process. Regardless of your needs, you will want inquire as to the ability of this materials option. Saving on costs, while adding an efficiency oriented element to any process is a good approach to steel slabs as well as in the purchasing and/or making of steel billets or even larger steel blooms. In fact, this can often be a method for ensuring that the precise chemistry required for a specific steel slab is met and/or adhered to rigorously. Making products from slabs does require this attention to chemistry, and it is a primary reason for working with reputable suppliers.

A leading exporter of steel slabs, Gemina provides access to the materials and products of their top quality mills in Turkey, the European Union and Asia. Manufacturers of all kinds will be able to call upon the firm to obtain the exact slabs required for any sort of production process. Whether it is sheets or coils, the steel slabs will be of the exact chemistry and quality required.